Vicodin

Acetaminophen / Hydrocodone

Hydrocodone/paracetamol, also known as hydrocodone/acetaminophen, is the combination of the pain medications hydrocodone and paracetamol. It is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is taken by mouth. Recreational use is common in the United States. Common side effects include dizziness, sleepiness, constipation, and vomiting.
Wikipedia

ChemSpider ID: 9422965

Paracetamol: Anilide analgesic

Other names: Hydrocodone/acetaminophen, hydrocodone/APAP

Trade name: Lorcet, Norco, Vicodin, others

Metabolism: Hydrocodone: extensively liver, primarily CYP3A4; Acetaminophen: liver, CYP2E1

Elimination half-life: for hydrocodone: 228–294 mins (3.8–4.9 hrs); for paracetamol: 120–240 mins (2–4 hrs) 

Compound Summary


2D structure (resource)

Synonyms

  • acetaminophen, hydrocodone drug combination
  • acetaminophen – hydrocodone
  • Vicodin
  • Vicodin ES
  • Vicodin HP
  • acetaminophen, hydrocodone tartrate drug combination
  • C083640

(source

Hydrocodone/acetaminophen

Brand name: Vicodin

  1. Narcotic
  2. It can treat pain.
  3. Controlled substance
  4. High risk for addiction and dependence. Can cause respiratory distress and death when taken in high doses or when combined with other substances, especially alcohol.

Learn more on drugfree.org

  • Brands: Vicodin, Hycet, Vicodin ES, Lortab Elixir, Lorcet Plus, Zamicet, Verdrocet, Xodol 5/300, Xodol 7.5/300, Xodol 10/300
  • Availability: Prescription needed
  • Pregnancy: Consult a doctor
  • Alcohol: Avoid. Very serious interactions can occur
  • Drug class: Opioid

Hydrocodone/acetaminophen side effects and Warnings

Nausea, vomiting, constipation, lightheadedness, dizziness, or drowsiness may occur. Some of these side effects may decrease after you have been using this medication for a while. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Hydrocodone/acetaminophen interactions

Taking certain drugs with acetaminophen-hydrocodone increases your risk of drowsiness, dizziness, tiredness, and reduced physical and mental function. If you need to use one of these drugs with acetaminophen-hydrocodone, the dosage of one or both drugs should be reduced.
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Important Warning

Hydrocodone combination products may be habit forming. Take your hydrocodone combination product exactly as directed. Do not take more of it, take it more often, or take it in a different way than directed by your doctor. While taking hydrocodone combination products, discuss with your healthcare provider your pain treatment goals, length of treatment, and other ways to manage your pain. Tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family drinks or has ever drunk large amounts of alcohol, uses or has ever used street drugs, or has overused prescription medications, or if you have or have ever had depression or another mental illness. There is a greater risk that you will overuse a hydrocodone combination product if you have or have ever had any of these conditions. Talk to your healthcare provider immediately and ask for guidance if you think that you have an opioid addiction or call the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-HELP.

Hydrocodone may cause serious or life-threatening breathing problems, especially during the first 24 to 72 hours of your treatment and any time your dose is increased. Your doctor will monitor you carefully during your treatment. Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had slowed breathing or asthma. Your doctor will probably tell you not to take a hydrocodone combination product. Also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways), a head injury, or any condition that increases the amount of pressure in your brain. The risk that you will develop breathing problems may be higher if you are an older adult or are weak or malnourished due to disease. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical treatment: slowed breathing, long pauses between breaths, or shortness of breath.

When a hydrocodone combination product was used in children, serious and life-threatening breathing problems such as slow or difficulty breathing and deaths were reported. Hydrocodone should never be used to treat pain or a cough in children younger than 18 years of age. If your child is currently prescribed a cough and cold medicine containing hydrocodone, talk to your child’s doctor about other treatments.

Taking certain medications with a hydrocodone combination product may increase the risk of serious or life-threatening breathing problems, sedation, or coma. Tell your doctor if you are taking, plan to take or plan to stop taking any of the following medications: certain antifungal medications including itraconazole (Onmel, Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); benzodiazepines such as alprazolam (Xanax), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Diastat, Valium), estazolam, flurazepam, lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam, temazepam (Restoril), and triazolam (Halcion); erythromycin (Erytab, Erythrocin); certain medications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) including indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), and ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra); medications for mental illness or nausea; other medications for pain; phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, in Rifamate); muscle relaxants; sedatives; sleeping pills; or tranquilizers. Your doctor may need to change the dosages of your medications and will monitor you carefully. If you take a hydrocodone combination product with any of these medications and you develop any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical care: unusual dizziness, lightheadedness, extreme sleepiness, slowed or difficult breathing, or unresponsiveness. Be sure that your caregiver or family members know which symptoms may be serious so they can call the doctor or emergency medical care if you are unable to seek treatment on your own.

Drinking alcohol, taking prescription or nonprescription medications that contain alcohol, or using street drugs during your treatment with a hydrocodone combination product increases the risk that you will experience these serious, life-threatening side effects. Do not drink alcohol, take prescription or nonprescription medications that contain alcohol, or use street drugs during your treatment.

Do not allow anyone else to take your medication. Hydrocodone may harm or cause death to other people who take your medication, especially children.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. If you take a hydrocodone combination product regularly during your pregnancy, your baby may experience life-threatening Vicodin withdrawal symptoms after birth. Tell your baby’s doctor right away if your baby experiences any of the following symptoms: irritability, hyperactivity, abnormal sleep, high-pitched cry, uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body, vomiting, diarrhea, or failure to gain weight.

Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer’s patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with a hydrocodone combination product and each time you refill your prescription. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer’s website to obtain the Medication Guide.

Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking a hydrocodone combination product.

Why is this medication prescribed?

Hydrocodone is available in combination with other ingredients, and different combination products are prescribed for different uses. Some hydrocodone combination products are used to relieve moderate-to-severe pain. Other hydrocodone combination products are used to relieve cough. Hydrocodone is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics and in a class of medications called antitussives. Hydrocodone relieves pain by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain. Hydrocodone relieves cough by decreasing activity in the part of the brain that causes coughing.

You will take hydrocodone in combination with at least one other medication, but this monograph only provides information about hydrocodone. Be sure to read information about the other ingredients in the hydrocodone product you are taking. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

How should this medicine be used?

Hydrocodone combination products come as a tablet, a capsule, a syrup, a solution (clear liquid), an extended-release (long-acting) capsule, and an extended-release (long-acting) suspension (liquid) to take by mouth. The tablet, capsule, syrup, and solution are usually taken every 4 to 6 hours as needed. The extended-release capsule and the extended-release suspension are usually taken every 12 hours as needed. If you are taking hydrocodone on a regular schedule, take it at around the same times every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand.

Swallow the extended-release capsules whole; do not split, chew, or crush them.

Shake the extended-release suspension well before each use to mix the medication evenly. Do not mix the extended-release suspension with other medications or with other liquids such as water.

If you will be using hydrocodone combination solution, syrup, or extended-release suspension, do not use a household teaspoon to measure your dose. Household teaspoons are not accurate measuring devices, and you may receive too much medication or not enough medication if you measure your dose with a household teaspoon. Instead, use a properly marked measuring device such as a dropper, medicine spoon, or oral syringe. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you need help getting or using a measuring device.

Call your doctor if your symptoms are not controlled by the hydrocodone combination product you are taking. Do not increase your dose of medication on your own. You may receive a dangerous overdose if you take more medication or take your medication more often than prescribed by your doctor.

If you have taken a hydrocodone combination product for several weeks or longer, do not stop taking the medication without talking to your doctor. If you suddenly stop taking a hydrocodone combination product, you may experience withdrawal symptoms. Your doctor will probably decrease your dose gradually.

Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer’s information for the patient, available for certain hydrocodone combination products.

Other uses for this medicine

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What special precautions should I follow?

Before taking a hydrocodone combination product,

  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to hydrocodone, the other medication in the hydrocodone combination product you are taking, other opiate (narcotic) medications such as morphine or codeine, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in the hydrocodone combination product you are taking. Ask your pharmacist or check the manufacturer’s information for the patient for a list of the ingredients.
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: antidepressants; antihistamines; antipsychotics (medications for mental illness) cyclobenzaprine (Amrix); dextromethorphan (found in many cough medications; in Nuedexta); ipratropium (Atrovent); lithium (Lithobid); medications for irritable bowel disease, motion sickness, Parkinson’s disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary problems; medications for migraine headaches such as almotriptan (Axert), eletriptan (Relpax), frovatriptan (Frova), naratriptan (Amerge), rizatriptan (Maxalt), sumatriptan (Imitrex, in Treximet), and zolmitriptan (Zomig); mirtazapine (Remeron); 5HT3 serotonin blockers such as alosetron (Lotronex), dolasetron (Anzemet), granisetron (Kytril), ondansetron (Zofran, Zuplenz), or palonosetron (Aloxi); selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, in Symbyax), fluvoxamine (Luvox), paroxetine (Brisdelle, Prozac, Pexeva), and sertraline (Zoloft); serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as desvenlafaxine (Khedezla, Pristiq), duloxetine (Cymbalta), milnacipran (Savella), and venlafaxine (Effexor); tramadol, trazodone (Oleptro); and tricyclic antidepressants (‘mood elevators’) such as amitriptyline, clomipramine (Anafranil), desipramine (Norpramin), doxepin (Silenor), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), protriptyline (Vivactil), and trimipramine (Surmontil). Also tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking or receiving monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors or have stopped taking them within the past 2 weeks: isocarboxazid (Marplan), linezolid (Zyvox), methylene blue, phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar), or tranylcypromine (Parnate). Many other medications may also interact with hydrocodone combination products, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
  • tell your doctor what herbal products you are taking, especially St. John’s wort and tryptophan.
  • tell your doctor if you have or have ever had any of the conditions mentioned in the IMPORTANT WARNING section or paralytic ileus (condition in which digested food does not move through the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to take a hydrocodone combination product.
  • tell your doctor if you have or have ever had difficulty urinating; seizures; or thyroid, intestinal, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, or kidney disease.
  • tell your doctor if you are breastfeeding.
  • you should know that this medication may decrease fertility in men and women. Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking a hydrocodone combination product.
  • if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking a hydrocodone combination product.
  • you should know that hydrocodone combination products may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you. 

In Case of Emergency/Overdose

In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at 1-800-222-1222. Information is also available online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can’t be awakened, immediately call emergency services at 911.

While you are taking a hydrocodone combination product, you may be told to always have a rescue medication called naloxone available (e.g., home, office). Naloxone is used to reverse the life-threatening effects of an overdose. It works by blocking the effects of opiates to relieve dangerous symptoms caused by high levels of opiates in the blood. You will probably be unable to treat yourself if you experience an opiate overdose. You should make sure that your family members, caregivers, or the people who spend time with you know how to tell if you are experiencing an overdose, how to use naloxone, and what to do until emergency medical help arrives. Your doctor or pharmacist will show you and your family members how to use the medication. Ask your pharmacist for the instructions or visit the manufacturer’s website to get the instructions. If someone sees that you are experiencing symptoms of an overdose, he or she should give you your first dose of naloxone, call 911 immediately, and stay with you and watch you closely until emergency medical help arrives. Your symptoms may return within a few minutes after you receive naloxone. If your symptoms return, the person should give you another dose of naloxone. Additional doses may be given every 2 to 3 minutes, if symptoms return before medical help arrives.

Symptoms of overdose may include the following:

  • narrowed or widened pupils
  • slow, shallow, or stopped breathing
  • slowed or stopped heartbeat
  • cold, clammy, or blue skin
  • excessive sleepiness
  • loss of consciousness
  • seizures
  • Death

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Additional Resources

Hydrocodone

Hydrocodone, sold under the brand name Hysingla among others, is an opioid used to treat severe pain of a prolonged duration, if other measures are not sufficient. It is also used as a cough suppressant in adults. It is taken by mouth. (source)

Opioid epidemic
An opioid epidemic is the overuse or misuse of addictive opioid drugs with significant medical, social and economic consequences, including overdose deaths. (source)

Vicodin FAQ

Can Vicodin and oxycodone be taken together?
Can you take hydrocodone and oxycodone together? No. Hydrocodone and oxycodone should not be used together. The combination can be very dangerous and lead to respiratory depression or death.

How quickly does Vicodin kick in? 
It also comes in extended-release capsules and tablets that can be taken once or twice daily. Hydrocodone begins to work in 20 to 30 minutes, with the peak effects in 30 to 60 minutes, then continuing for four to six hours.

What does Vicodin do to your body?
Vicodin is a very effective, yet highly addictive substance. This narcotic works by blocking the pain receptors in the brain leading to pain relief and feelings of relaxation, which are what cause this drug to be so addictive.

Does Vicodin calm you down?
Hydrocodone interacts with the opioid receptors located throughout the body to lower pain; it also creates a sense of euphoria and helps users feel calm and relaxed.

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